RIDDL Documentation
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Entity Handler


See the handler concept page for general information about handlers.

Note that a context can define a handlertoo, but they are different compared to the handlers defined in an entity. See Context Handler for details on them.

Handlers are specified with the handler keyword and enclose a set of on clauses that specify what to do with a given event when that handler is active. There are four kinds of on clauses distinguished by the kind of message they handle (command, event, query, and reaction) as detailed in the following sections.

Command Handler

A command handler specifies which persistent event is generated for a given command. For example:

command JustDoIt is { id: Id(AnEntity), encouragement: String }
event JustDidIt is { id: Id(AnEntity), encouragement: String }
on command JustDoIt yields JustDidIt

Event Handler

An event handler specifies how an event modifies the state of the entity.

state State is { name: String }

event NameWasUpdated is { id: Id(AnEntity), newName: String }

on event NameWasUpdated { set State.name to NameWasUpdated.newName }

Reaction Handler

A reaction handler is used to specify how an entity converts a foreign event (from another entity) into a command for altering its own state. This is also a way to avoid corruption of the entity’s ubiquitous language by converting another bounded context’s concept into the handler’s entity’s concept.

domain Path is { 
  domain To is { 
    context Context is {
      event ThingThatHappened is { id: Id(Entity), whatHappened: String }

domain Foo { 
  context Bar { 
    entity Example {
      event ExternalThingHappened is { 
        id: Id(Example), 
        whatHappened: String 
      on event Path.To.Context.ThingThatHappened yields ExternalThingHappened


Query Handler

A query handler associates a query message to the result message that the query returns along with the SQL statement that yields the result set.

type JustGetIt = query { id: Id(AnEntity) }
type JustGotIt = response { id: Id(AnEntity), count: Integer }
on query JustGetIt {
  then return JustGotIt from "SELECT id, count FROM AnEntity WHERE id = %id"

Defining Multiple Handlers

An entity can make use of multiple handlers so that the behavior of an entity can be changed. There can be only one handler active at any moment, but an entity can change which handler is active for future messages in response to any message. This ability permits a set of handlers to model a finite state machine where each handler is a state and each on clause is a transition. When a handler is active, any messages received that are not explicitly defined by the handler will simply be ignored.